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2019山东教师招聘高中英语With引导的独立主格结构分析(语法知识)

2019-11-29 22:10:06
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为了大家能够更好的提早备考山东教师招聘考试,山东教师考试网小编特整理了山东教师招聘学科知识资料,今天给大家带来“2019山东教师招聘高中英语With引导的独立主格结构分析(语法知识)”,预祝大家考试成功!

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With引导的独立主格结构分析

with独立主格结构是英语中一种重要的句法现象,在句子结构方面具有相对独立的特点。多年来也一直是命题的热点、重点,因此应该引起我们的高度重视。众所周知,with引导的独立主格结构非常活跃,虽然它在句子中只作状语,但是可以表示伴随、方式、原因、结果等各种复杂的情况。

现将with引导的独立主格结构总结如下。

一、句法结构

1. with +名词(代词)+介词短语

He sat there thinking, with his chin on his hand.他手托下巴,坐在那儿沉思。

The old man stood there, with his back against the wall.那位老人背倚着墙站在那里。

Mary was sitting near the fire, with her back towards the door.玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。

2. with +名词(代词)+形容词

He stared at his friend with his mouth wide open.他张大嘴巴凝视着他的朋友。

The man raised his head with eyes full of wonder and mystery.这人抬起头来,眼里充满了好奇。

He stood there trembling, with his face red with cold.他站在那儿瑟瑟发抖,脸都冻红了。

3.with +名词(代词)+副词

With production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year.产量上升了60%, 公司又是一个好年景。

The stupid Emperor walked in the procession with nothing on.这位愚蠢的皇帝一丝不挂地行进在游行队伍中。

The naughty boy stood before his teacher with his head down.这个淘气的男孩低着头站在老师面前。

He put on his socks with the wrong side out.他把袜子穿反了。

4.with +名词(代词)+名词

She used to sit reading in the evening with her pet dog her only companion.

她从前总爱在晚上坐着看书,她的宠物狗便是她唯一的伙伴。

He died with his daughter yet a schoolgirl.他去世的时候,女儿还是个中学生。

5.with +名词(代词)+现在分词

She stood there chatting with her friend, with her child playing beside her.她站在那儿跟朋友闲聊,孩子在旁边玩。

With you helping me whenever I’m in trouble, I feel very obliged to you.无论我什么时候遇到困难你总是帮助我,真是太感激你了。

6.with +名词(代词)+过去分词

“I think we can leave with our heads held high,” Eriksson said. “We came out of the toughest group, beat Argentina, beat Denmark in a convincing way.”“我认为我们可以高昂着头离开,”艾里克松说。“我们来自死亡之组,以一种令人信服的方式击败了阿根廷,击败了丹麦。”

The goalkeeper left Japan with his flaws laid bare.这位守门员离开了日本,而他的缺点却暴露无遗。

7.with +名词(代词)+不定式

With 10 minutes to go, you’d better hurry. 还有十分钟,你最好快一点。

With you to lead us, our group is sure to succeed. 有你领导我们,我们组肯定能成功。

二、句法功能

【作状语】 with独立主格结构主要用作状语,可以表示伴随、方式、原因、时间等。

例 With Mary to help him, he is sure to succeed. 有玛丽的帮助,他一定能成功。

【作定语】 主要是用作后置定语。

例 The girl reached a river bank with so many flowers on both banks.这个女孩来到了两岸开满鲜花的河边。

三、句法关系

【主表关系】这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的形容词、副词以及介词短语构成。

例 Mother looked at me with tears in her eyes. 妈妈眼含泪水看着我。

【主谓关系】这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的现在分词构成。

例 With night coming on, we started for home. 夜幕降临,我们动身回家。

例 The boy lay on the grass, with his eyes looking at the sky.小男孩躺在草地上,两眼望着天空。

【动宾关系】这种关系主要是由with独立主格结构中的名词和其后的过去分词及动词不定式构成的,前者表示“被动、完成”,后者表示“未做、待做”。

例 With so much work to do, we had to sit up through the night.有这么多工作要做,我们不得不彻夜不眠。

四、句法省略

【省略特征】 with独立主格结构中的省略主要是指在“with + n + 介词短语”结构中的省略,其特点是省去with及介词短语中的名词修饰词,也就是:“n + 介词 + n”。

例 She ran to the hero, flowers in hand.她手里拿着鲜花跑向这位英雄。

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